Kaikoura earthquake landslides: the picture slowly emerges As parts of New Zealand continue to reel under the combined effect of the ongoing aftershocks and the effects of very heavy rainfall, the effects and extent of the Kaikoura earthquake landslides are slowly emerging. As well as triggering tens of thousands of landslides on land, the magnitude 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, that shook New Zealand in the early hours of Monday 14 November, also caused a massive underwater landslide. The agency said in a statement that eight people were killed and 637 others were injured in Mamuju's neighboring district of Majene. Following this, further samples of the mapped data have been targeted for field verification. Extent of landslide debris. The most visible consequence of the strong ground shaking was widespread landslides. The process for compiling the definitive landslide inventory for the 14 November 2016 M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake is described below. During the Kaikoura earthquake at least 23 faults ruptured to the ground … Landslides caused major disruption with all road and rail links with Kaikoura being severed. Debris Toe: A point at the distal end of debris tail (lowest down slope point). Programme and abstracts. A unique number for each digitiser’s working copy of the database. From the United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California: J Godt, R Jibson, K Allstadt, F Rengers. Langridge, R.M. The number of dams that are of concern is reducing with rainstorm events (particularly in early April 2017) resulting in breaching of four of the dams of greatest concern. There were reports of many people trapped in the rubble of collapsed homes and buildings. After clocking hours upon hours in the skies, we estimate that there has been between 80,000 to 100,000 landslides triggered by the Kaikoura earthquake and aftershocks. The Kaikoura Mw7.8 earthquake struck at 12.03 am local time on 14th November 2016 (UTC: 11.03 am 13th November 2016) – a shallow (15 km) magnitude 7.8 earthquake (Mw), with an epicentre located near Waiau in North Canterbury (Kaiser et al, 2017), and strongly shook the North Canterbury and Marlborough regions of NZ. Its chairwoman urged people in coastal areas to move to higher ground as a precaution. Lower Hutt, N.Z. p. 32 In: Kelly, K.; Christophersen, A.; Rhoades, D.A. ; Pinches, G.M. The largest has an approximate volume of 23(±2) M m3 and at least some of the debris from this travelled about 2.7 km down slope where it formed a dam blocking the Hapuku River. Along the Kaikoura coastline, earthquake conversation keeps turning to the native crayfish for which the coast is named. Website design by Futurelab | What we know so far For example, these cascading hazards will increase river aggradation which will widen river beds, increase bank erosion and consequently increase both the magnitude and frequency of flooding. If there is a second material type involved which appears to have had a significant influence on the failure or runout mechanics, then can include a second material type. For each landslide source area polygon, as much information as possible is entered into the attribute table (Table 1). Hancox, G.T. The landslides are distributed across an elongated area consistent with the area affected by fault ruptures and intense ground shaking. 2010). The most intense landslide damage was concentrated in 3500 km2 around the areas of fault rupture. In addition to the satellite imagery, low level aerial oblique photographs are also being used to help define the landslides. (AP Photo/Yusuf Wahil). ... Kaikoura was hit by a severe earthquake on the 14th November 2016. ‘High’ confidence can be used if you are fairly confident on the mapping. From the University of Washington, Seattle, USA: J Wartman. “I can’t save my dear sister ... forgive me, sister, forgive us, God!”. After several hours, an excavator came to help and the rescuers eventually retrieved four survivors and three bodies. When they reach the Karmini reported from Jakarta, Indonesia. From the Elixis Group Ltd., Athens, Greece: J Manousakis. All rights reserved. More than 200 significant valley-blocking landslides triggered by this event have been mapped. GNS Science miscellaneous series 101. In the interests of space three people heavily involved in the initial response are named as authors, but that in no way reflects or diminishes the contributions made by the following people. Strong ground shaking affected the North Canterbury and Marlborough regions of the South Island, causing widespread damage to buildings and infrastructure across these sparsely populated areas. used to digitize the landslide, and confidence in the mapping. Given the sparsely populated area affected by landslides, only a few homes were impacted and there were no recorded deaths due to landslides. Our landslide and paleoseismology teams quickly took to the skies to spot landslides in the Kaikouras and Southern Alps. There are potentially other terms that can be added later that are not included in the classification. The 14 November 2016 M w 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake generated more than 10,000 landslides over a total area of about 10, 000 km 2 ⁠, with the majority concentrated in a smaller area of about 3600 km 2 ⁠.The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake had an approximate volume of 20 (± 2) M m 3 ⁠, with a runout distance … NZGS 2021 | The M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake generated thousands of landslides over north Canterbury, NZ. Landslides caused major disruption with all road and rail links to Kaikoura being severed. “Please help me, it hurts,” the girl told rescuers, who replied that they desperately wanted to help her. The photographs are georeferenced using a GPS flight track-log, and they cover most of the area affected by landslides. The Varnes classification of landslide types, an update. named ‘obscured areas’) is created that outlines the obscured areas. This describes the relationship of the landslide debris to streams/rivers or major drainage lines. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences 1:250,000 geological map 13. Available online ; Massey C et al (2018) Landslides Triggered by the 14 November 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake, … KAIKOURA EARTHQUAKE UPDATE 2 Using diggers to clear landslides is part of the normal recovery process. April 2014. Several parts of State Highway 1 and the South Island main trunk railway between Ward in Marlborough and Oaro in North Canterbury were closed due to landslides. The strong ground shaking caused damage to buildings and infrastructure across the northeast of the South Island. This limits the usefulness of such models for assessing the hazard and geomorphic impacts associated with large co-seismic landslides. More than 600 people were injured by the magnitude 6.2 quake, which sent people fleeing their homes in the darkness. The lesser-known Hundalee Fault also terminates near the Kaikoura coast, and although it is not as large as other faults in the area, it still has the potential to trigger a submarine landslide event. The mapped landslide distribution reflects the complexity of the earthquake ruptures. A consequence of the strong ground shaking was widespread landslides. ; Townsend, D.; Johnston, M.R. For each of the methods (Satellite, Orthophoto, Oblique photo, Ground visit, or Multiple [i.e. The area affected by landslides is relatively remote with few people living there, and so only a few homes were impacted by landslides; there were no recorded deaths due to landslides. 106-116. Compiling landslide inventories from events that generate thousands to tens of thousands of landslides has evolved over the last sixteen years. There are also a few landslide types that are rare (such as peat failures) but that have been included for completeness. However, most event-based models fail to adequately describe the occurrence of the few relatively large-volume landslides generated by a given earthquake, and in plots of landslide frequency and volume, these landslides are typically outliers. From the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ: J Davidson. This landslide is a long (2.7 km) rock avalanche with a volume of about 10-14 million … 17 June 1929 M7.8 Murchison earthquake; Hancox et al., 2002). In addition to discrete landslides, linear slope deformation indicators (i.e. See below a selection of photos. The 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake generated thousands of landslides and 196 landslide dams. Fall, topple, slide (can differentiate into rotational, planar, wedge), flow (can differentiate into avalanche, dry flow, flowslide, earthflow), slope deformation, or creep. Capturing the landslide data is an ongoing process as new information becomes available (e.g. 10th International Workshop on Statistical Seismology, 20 – 24 February 2017, Wellington, New Zealand. These areas may be mapped at a later date if suitable imagery becomes available. If debris trails from multiple source areas merge, then the polygons also need to merge. Imagery date: 22 November 2016; WorldView- 3 (WV3) 1.4 m resolution (multispectral bands). On November 13, 2016, a powerful earthquake jolted the northeastern coast of New Zealand’s South Island. The earthquake damaged part of a hospital and patients were moved to an emergency tent outside. A powerful Indian Ocean quake and tsunami in 2004 killed 230,000 people in a dozen countries, most of them in Indonesia. Rescuers struggled to extract seven patients and staff who were trapped under tons of rubble. Landslides affected a total area of about 10,000 km2 with the majority concentrated in a smaller area of about 3,600 km2. The rescuers said an excavator was needed to save the girl and others trapped in collapsed buildings. 70 p. + 1 folded map. Feedback to website@nzgs.org, Landslides caused by the 14 November 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, South Island, New Zealand, NZGS International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. The now-named Kaikoura Earthquake triggered up to 100,000 landslides in Northern Canterbury and southern Marlborough. The area affected by landslides is sparsely populated, only a few dwellings were impacted and there were no recorded deaths due to landslides. : GNS Science. Landslide crown: A point at the top of the landslide crown/headscarp (highest point). The main material type that failed. Number does not have to be unique to the whole database, as ‘Originator’ field will be used to differentiate duplicate id numbers. The large landslides in the centre left of the photo did not reach the foot of the slope during the initial failure and the debris is a hazard that will remobilize in an aftershock or rainstorm and will present an ongoing risk to road and rail users if mitigation measures are not implemented. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 35(2): 59-. Families still isolated a MONTH after New Zealand earthquake as landslide blocks most direct road into their town - and face a 460km drive … satellite images, LiDAR survey data). A horde of escaped crayfish (koura) was a side effect of Monday's massive 7.8 magnitude shake, according to Ward resident Kerry Snell. Our landslide and paleoseismology teams quickly took to the skies to spot landslides in the Kaikouras and Southern Alps. There have been somewhere between 80,000 to 100,000 landslides since the quake, GeoNet said, with areas of the Inland and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges the most affected. 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