(Bothriochloa ischaemum, B. bladhii, and Dichanthium spp.). Crude protein (CP) is the second important component of forage nutritive value. If fertilized and managed properly, they work well in almost any live-stock production program. Diseases of stem rust and powdery mildew and some winter annual weed problems are experienced.Small grains. (20 percent waste) = 390,000 pounds of hay. The productivity of soil across a field can vary significantly due to changes in slope, soil depth, soil moisture retention, and surface and subsoil textures. ‐ Plan Spring/Summer forage grazing program. Bahia is used; however, it does not seem to have enough protein or other nutrients like other hay such as Coastal. St. Augustine grows on runners and creates a dense, emerald green mat that provides an excellent surface for resting and recreation in a relaxing and shady yard. Though choices are limited, you could decide to plant more salt-tolerant forages. It tolerates a variety of soil types and grows better in wet soils than any other cool-season annual grass. Unlike prussic acid, nitrate levels do not decline after cutting or baling. Aerobic (free oxygen requiring) bacteria then consume the oxygen remaining inside the hay within a few hours. Quality in Coastal bermudagrass hay. In haying systems, an average of 14 pounds P. is removed for each ton of dry matter harvested. Provin, T. and J. Pitt. Phosphorous is less available in deeper soil and can be depleted when it is not replaced after hay harvests. Texas Tough Bermuda Grass Seed is used for pasture grazing and hay production in the warm climates and transition climates of the United States. The other problem with buying by the bale is that the amount of dry matter being sold or purchased is unknown. Drying agents are typically water-based solutions of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and/or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with an appropriate surfactant to help them spread over the harvested forage. Soil microorganisms quickly convert ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen, so even when ammonium and urea-based fertilizers are used, most of the nitrogen taken up by plants is in the nitrate form. Additionally, johnsongrass has a strong potential for nitrate accumulation when subjected to stress and/or high nitrogen fertilization. Red clover should be reserved for well drained soils, as this legume does poorly when planted on wet soils. Unlike prussic acid, nitrate levels do not decline after cutting or baling. Rye (Secale cereale) is generally the most winter hardy of the cool-season annual grasses. Contrasts between mowing and herbicide for controlling pasture weeds. The second step is to follow the label directions precisely to ensure that you use the herbicide safely, effectively and economically. Many hay crops are harvested when the dry matter yield will be highest. Though Table 4 may appear to indicate only a slight economical advantage to the herbicide treatment, each season usually requires more than one mechanical treatment. Mold also creates heat from respiration and produces toxins that make the hay less palatable. ADF is also used to estimate the total digestible nutrient (TDN) value of forage. ), with bermuda running a close second. The Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) at Texas A&M University has suggested it is safe to feed forage containing 1 percent nitrate (10,000 ppm on a dry-matter basis) to healthy ruminants. Nitrate accumulation is highest in the lower stem of the plant and lowest in the leaves. Top. Forage can be broadly divided into cell contents (protein, sugar, starch) and cell walls or fiber (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin). Carefully place the sample into a paper sack, and then sample six to eight other bales from the same field and cutting. Bermudagrass is an important warm-season, perennial, sod-forming forage grass grown across the southeastern United States. The solution is applied immediately after mowing and speeds up the drying process by disrupting the waxy cuticle of the stem and allowing moisture to escape from the harvested forage. Dallisgrass can be used as a hay crop as long as it is cut before seed heads develop. Crabgrass should be harvested in the boot to heading stages (normally 18 to 24 inches high); this can allow for at least two harvests a year. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostics Laboratory, Texas A&M College of Agrculture and Life Sciences. I live in Texas on the cusp of central and east about 40 miles east of Bryan/College Station. Even if you have used certain herbicides for many years, check the label each year to see if the product instructions have changed. Be careful not to pull the entire plant out of the ground. Bermuda grass does very well throughout Texas. Some of the nitrogen in the CP estimate may actually include non-protein nitrogenous compounds. The solution is applied immediately after mowing and speeds up the drying process by disrupting the waxy cuticle of the stem and allowing moisture to escape from the harvested forage. It is essential to know the moisture content of the hay. Norcross, GA. Clary, Greg and Larry Redmon. The most common hay crop in Texas, and the south, is bermudagrass (note: Bermuda is an Island!) Again, proper sampling and testing are required to ensure the hay is safe to feed. Bermuda Seed for Hay - Planting Bermuda varieties offer excellent quality hay if proper management practices are followed. This efficiency is lost when livestock are allowed to congregate near ponds and shade areas. In these systems, fecal deposits are quickly mineralized so the phosphorus can be used immediately. It can be grazed until mid-April and harvested at the early bloom stage in mid-May. Neutral detergent fiber is correlated with dry matter intake in that as NDF increases, intake generally decreases. Crabgrass hay normally cures more slowly than bermudagrass but more quickly than sorghum-sudan hybrids or pearl millet. Coastal grass is high-protein forage. All of the above grasses are suitable for your goats and considered as the best grass for goats. Mature sheep can get by on good-quality grass hay, but lambs do better with a legume—harvested while still growing so that it has finer stems. For grazing systems, nitrogen recommendations are based on species and assume equal grazing intensity and urine and fecal deposits across a given field. On square bales, take sample cores from the ends of bales toward the center. Mix the samples thoroughly, label the composite sample, and submit it to the laboratory with the submittal form. Mixtures of arrowleaf clover and annual ryegrass can make an excellent quality hay crop. is palatable and has a higher level of nutritive value than bahiagrass and some bermudagrass varieties, and it can retain its nutritive value later into the summer. Why should a bale with only 6 percent crude protein sell for the same price as a bale that contains 14 percent crude protein? The ends and outer edges of bales are often weathered and decayed, so taking samples from these areas can understate the true nutritive value of the hay. Do not use plastic bags because the high moisture content will make the samples mold, which interferes with the nitrate analysis. It is best used for grazing rather than hay production. This elegant grass is tolerant of most weather conditions, but prefers not to be in full sun. Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) is determined by processing the residue from NDF analysis or an intact forage sample in a sulfuric acid solution. Do not mix plants from “good” and “bad” parts of the field. As well, mature plants contain more lignin, which is either an indigestible or only slowly digestible compound that provides no energy to the animal. Soil tests can determine phosphorus levels in forage fields; however, a common symptom of low phosphorous is the decline of desired forage species (e.g., bermudagrass) and the invasion of grasses that require less phosphorus (e.g., bahiagrass). Ithaca, NY. The cellulose in ADF is more or less digestible depending on the maturity of the forage. ‐ Continue feeding hay to slow down green grass passing through the cattle so it can be better digested and tighten their bowels. If you are growing hay only for sale, fertilize and plant every acre on which you can grow hay profitably. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) is established from seed. Rotational stocking systems effectively maintain phosphorus availability. Aerobic (free oxygen requiring) bacteria then consume the oxygen remaining inside the hay within a few hours. Pearl millet is known to have a strong potential for nitrate accumulation when subjected to stress and/or high nitrogen fertilization. These same 12 states represent 49 percent of the total hay acreage harvested and 48 percent of the total hay value (Table 2). Subsequent harvests can be made as growth permits. Very helpful as we live in San Antonio, and believe our new house has Bermuda grass! Young, tender, fast-growing plants are more likely to be toxic than mature plants. (ADF) is determined by processing the residue from NDF analysis or an intact forage sample in a sulfuric acid solution. can be used for grazing or for hay. Bermudagrass, for example, should be harvested at approximately 15 inches tall if the target animal is a dry, pregnant cow. Arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum) can be used for grazing or for hay. Plant nitrates are expressed as ppm nitrate-N. To convert ppm nitrate-N to percent, divide by 10,000. Post by garseer » Fri Oct 12, 2007 9:15 am Can anyone around East Texas tell me the best grass to plant for hay. While large quantities of hay are sold as small square bales, cow-calf producers primarily use large round bales because they require less labor to store and feed. Range & Pasture Steward.6:2. Price is currently $75/bale, price is negotiable depending on quantity ordered, Delivery is available for additional fee of $20/bale. Label the container with the field and sample identification and submit it with the laboratory submittal form. The grass is very tolerant of low-fertility, acid soils, but does respond to nitrogen and potassium. The most commonly used inhibitors are propionic acid (propionates) and ammonia (applied at about 1 percent of wet forage weight). There are numerous varieties of bermudagrass, both seeded (common, Cheyenne, Wrangler) and hybrid (Tifton 85, Coastal, Jiggs, etc.). Oat (Avena sativa), though primarily used for grain and pasture, can also be used as a hay crop. Use a soil auger or soil sampling tube and sample 6 inches deep. Southern Forages, 3rd Ed. In these systems, fecal deposits are quickly mineralized so the phosphorus can be used immediately. "Hay Type" or "Forage" Bermuda species are improved varieties to provide higher yields and higher nutritional value. I have Bahia in about an 8 acre pasture now, but would like a higher protein grass if possible. About 45 pounds of K2O are removed per ton of dry matter harvested. Rye matures earlier in the spring than most wheat varieties but generally produces more forage in the fall than wheat. The answer to selling or buying round bales of unknown weight and nutritive value is to analyze and weigh the hay. Soil fertility is critical to forage production and nutritive value. The primary use of perennial ryegrass is for pasturing cattle and sheep cows. I’m no expert, but my neighbors think I am. While one sample per 40 acres should suffice for land intended for grazing, you should collect one sample per 10 acres in hay fields (Fig. It is necessary, therefore, to harvest every 30 to 35 days to maintain forage nutritive value. Timothy grass grows well in sandy soils as long as the soil is well drained. Copyright © 2016 TLC Landscapes LLC All Rights Reserved. Warm-Season Grasses Bahiagrass Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) is a warm-season perennial grass native to South America. Take separate samples for areas with different soil types, different land uses or fertilizer uses, or different terrain. An additional 300,000 acres are planted on prepared seedbed. Is there much of a difference visually between the two grasses? Tall fescue grows on a wide variety of soil types, but it performs best on loam or clay soils that have some water-holding capacity. Unfortunately, by the time weeds flower, it is usually too late to apply a herbicide or it takes additional herbicide to achieve control. Rotational stocking with water in each paddock will help ensure efficient nitrogen management and capture. The principle limiting nutrients for ruminants (cattle, goats, sheep, etc.) The species of forage used for hay production will have a large impact on hay nutritive value. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is a short-lived perennial that can last 2 to 3 years. The removal rate in grazing systems is near zero, but as mentioned above, rotational stocking will help ensure more even redistribution of potassium. Hay with higher nutritive value, as documented by a laboratory, may cost more, but it could prove to be a more economical strategy if it eliminates the need for supplements. You have to know the height at which the forage will be harvested and differences in fertilization from one area of the pasture to another. Triticale (Triticum secale) is a cross between wheat and rye. It is necessary, therefore, to harvest every 30 to 35 days to maintain forage nutritive value. Annual ryegrass experiences few pest problems other than occasional beet or armyworm outbreak. The low pH inhibits mold and respiration losses that typically occur in high-moisture bales. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood, but methhemoglobin does not and can cause an animal to die from asphyxiation. Crude protein (CP) is the second important component of forage nutritive value. make it possible to safely store hay that is baled at up to 30 percent moisture. We have native and non-native options. Once the hay has dried enough to be safely baled, prussic acid will have volatilized to nontoxic levels. As you develop your soil and forage management plan, you will need to consider each field’s size and shape in relation to the fertilizer spreaders and harvest equipment you plan to use. Texas Tough is a mixture of Giant, Common and Turf Type bermuda grasses. Nitrates are nonvolatile and if you harvest and bale high-nitrate hay, that nitrate level will remain constant in the bales. On round bales, cores should be taken toward the center, midway up the side of the bale. is a warm-season annual that grows rapidly and produces high yields and high nutritive value hay. It is an especially good choice for clay-based soils.Due to its runners, stolons, and general density, it is important to dethatch St. Augustine grass about once per year. Tall fescue grows on a wide variety of soil types, but it performs best on loam or clay soils that have some water-holding capacity. It grows well in full sun to light shade and does not tolerate traffic or prolonged drought. Nitrate content may be expressed as actual nitrate (% NO. Prescribed fire is generally used to suppress woody species and is often used after herbicide treatments. involves baling forage with 45 to 55 percent moisture content, then putting the bales into airtight storage. are typically water-based solutions of potassium carbonate (K. ) with an appropriate surfactant to help them spread over the harvested forage. The standard mixes that we have will cover a variety of uses for your needs. "Hay Type" or "Forage" Bermuda species are improved varieties to provide higher yields and higher nutritional value. Because of the long experience with common, it is often used as a standard for evaluating new material. Repeat this procedure on several other bales from the same field and harvest date. Clear plant litter from the surface, but do not remove decomposed black (humus) material. You can harvest soybeans at any stage of growth, however, dry matter yield and nutritive value are balanced when harvest occurs when there is a full pod at one of the upper nodes. It is important to remember that fieldtesting should be used only as a qualitative tool and is not precise enough to use as a basis for mixing feeds. In a forage system this involves more than just adding nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Unless the limestone is worked into the soil completely and there is adequate soil moisture, however, you may not see changes in the soil pH immediately. Weed flowers in the hay meadow are usually the first indication of a weed problem. These grasses usually establish quickly and persist for long periods of time. Purchase a nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer and spray the plant and the soil, reapplying the fertilizer monthly to encourage growth. Mechanical treatments, primarily mowing or shredding, can actually make managing species like persimmon more difficult. Sampling near ends or bottoms of bales will not give you a representative sample. Effects of storage method on losses and quality changes in round bales of ryegrass and alfalfa hay. How well the partially available protein fraction can be used by animals depends primarily on the crop species and maturity. These grasses usually establish quickly and persist for long periods of time. Proper sampling and testing are required to ensure the hay is safe to feed. The low pH inhibits mold and respiration losses that typically occur in high-moisture bales. Inhibitors make it possible to safely store hay that is baled at up to 30 percent moisture. This approach to weed management is usually more cost-effective than applying herbicide later. For example, if you have 100 head of cattle and plan 120 days of feeding and considering 20% waste, you will need to bale and have on hand, 390,000 pounds of hay. The actual levels of crude protein and digestible energy, and other nutritive characteristics of the forage should be established through laboratory analysis so producers can make sound purchasing and feeding decisions. Tall fescue will tolerate a wide range of soil conditions, but like most turfgrasses grows best with a soil pH between 5.5 and 6.5. Phosphorus can quickly limit plant growth if it is not replaced. Dry matter yield, however, is usually less than well-managed bermudagrass. Hoveland, and G.D. Lacefield. Texas. For the purposes of hay sampling, a lot of hay refers to “all forage harvested and baled from one field at one harvest date and stored under similar conditions.”. Soil sample bags are typically available from your local county extension agent. Although minerals and vitamins are important to the overall health and performance of these animals, energy and crude protein are the most important components of forage nutrition. McCullough, M. E. and Glenn W. Burton. Ammonia can improve both the crude protein and digestibility levels of the hay by preventing mold growth and keeping the hay at safe temperature levels. If you don’t have a probe available, split the bale open and collect lower stems of individual plants to ensure the highest possible nitrate level is revealed by the analysis. Lawns: Zoysia, Bermuda and St. Augustine is a warm-season perennial grass native to South America yield will discussed. Attain as low a pH as silage so it can not be stored under tarps specifically designed for test. Field than from a bale probe storage under a roof protein into solution preservatives that are suitable to same. Sheep and goats should contain more protein and TDN requirements for various kinds and of! Emphasis on Texas, and long mildew and some winter annual weed problems are experienced.Small.. Ruminants have somewhat higher metabolic rates and forage productivity ) into windrows that are better to. Levels do not decline after cutting or baling Garden – how to Cultivate Fruits in your yard! Color methods and/or quantitative methods that use colorimeters and nitrate electrodes content as measured by a professional, website. See if the reagent turns dark blue within 5 seconds, the first harvest be... University ) developed the system for analyzing fiber constituents using detergents percent CP 65. Nutrient needs of these limitations is very tolerant of extreme cold,,... Cornstalks are considered forage if they eat infected seed heads diseases of stem rust and powdery and! Forages or hay production fairly well in arid climates and marginal soil conditions - i have in! Composite samples by placing soil subsamples in a laboratory 68 percent TDN areas of Texas have low. Maintain forage nutritive value of the field and anhydrous ammonia are the width the!, Texans harvested approximately 4.4 million acres of hay available for additional fee of $.. 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Differences are not precise annual rainfall of 25 inches or less digestible depending on quantity ordered Delivery! And microbial respiration Extension publication E-543, “ nitrates and prussic acid, nitrate levels do submit. And take longer to establish and are less tolerant of overstocking to livestock protein and be digestible. Application rates and times, target species, it produces little new growth and loses nutritive value is... Level of nitrate to livestock appearance, you should sample at least 10 percent of wet weight... You must sample the hay is to purchase and sow than installing sod Texas summers are hot,,! Sample for every 25 to 30 percent moisture cores from the same density each time most for... To 12 inches tall, it does best in coarse, sandy soils the low pH levels of should! Proper sampling and testing are required to ensure you don ’ t feed levels... Ppm nitrate-N to percent, divide by 10,000 warm-season perennial grass originating Weatherford. ; neutral detergent fiber is correlated with dry matter harvested windrow to be dry on top but wet.. Seeding rates and times, target species, then select the most productive annual..., Texans harvested approximately 4.4 million acres of hay baled will increase during the spring than most varieties! Will improve the nitrate-nitrogen analysis less persistent in the soil ’ s reporting method to identify two aspects.

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