They receive an additional 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen after the first cutting. The magazine is published monthly with a sizeable portion of articles unique to Canadians. Yields are reduced during periods of drought. “Too many plant a hay crop, grow it and figure they’ll sell it,” he says. Second cutting of timothy hay was under way off Sorenson and Badger Pocket ... processors and growers contacted said the first cutting appears to about average in yield, 4 to 4 1/2 tons per acre. Production trends and demand. At a price of $3.50 per bushel for corn, he says that amounts to a profit of $129 per acre if there are no costs associated with the land. of hay per acre that are packed into 65-pound bales, which produces 62 bales per acre. Pure timothy fields, which are cut twice per year and yield about 5 tons per acre, are hit with 100 pounds of nitrogen, 20 pounds of phosphorus, and 80 pounds of potassium per acre in early spring. Grazing. It is important to realize that hay produced ... Lower yields and shorter stand life results in higher production costs of timothy hay, so it is generally appropriate only for high-value hay markets (such as the horse hay market). Annual rainfall total and 30-year averages for “wet” y for use in hay and pasture mixes. I love endangered critters and had it in mind to buy a 40 to 60 acre piece of land in northern nevada (grassy not desert) and breed san clemente goats and sulfur horses, but there lies the rub- feed. Being a … 0000003272 00000 n Hay buyers never change. Michigan hay prices were good in 2017, and a one-ton increase of average quality alfalfa hay yield was worth $130 to 160/acre. Michigan hay prices were good in 2017, and a one-ton increase of average quality alfalfa hay yield was worth $130 to 160/acre. Regardless of uncertain times and volatile market and commodity prices, when... No article about improving bunk life would be complete without first reiterating... Progressive Forage provides cutting-edge, practical information about forage production, harvesting equipment and market prices to you at no cost. After ensuring that the plants have dried, a tractor pulling a baler arranges the hay into bales that weigh from 100 to 2800 lbs. KY-Early Timothy produces abundant quantities of forage. Alfalfa Field (dairy quality hay) Equation: Estimated 4 tons per acre yield of 16% moisture hay at $200 per ton = $800 per acre value for all three cuttings; minus buyer’s cost of harvest and weather risk at $324 per acre assuming three cuttings (Table 1); equals the buyer’s maximum pay price: $476 per acre for three cuttings ($800 - $324 = $476). Chlorophyll SPAD meters are commercially available from several suppliers. When timothy is the major component in hay, its stage of maturity affects both yield and quality. 2017 Conditions. bales, which generates 165 bales per acre. Fertilizer and Nutrient Management of Timothy Hay Timothy has a relatively high demand for nutrients. I have not had good luck drilling timothy. The optimum nitrogen concentration to maximize profit is 3.15 percent at the vegetative stage with stems 6 inches in length and 3.36 percent at the early boot stage when stems were 26 inches in length. You can expect yields of 4 or more tons of dry matter per acre under certain conditions. For us here in the Midwest, a mixed grass/legume hay can yield anywhere from one to five tons per acre for a full season. highest yields. Orchardgrass does not exhibit as much tolerance to drought or winter hardiness as tall fescue and bromegrass. Progressive Dairy - en français expands PD’s mission of providing useful dairy information by offering a publication specific to French-speaking dairy producers in Canada with a local touch. Each day soybean planting is delayed results in about 0.5 bu/a lost yield – at a value of $2.5 to $3.00 per acre. The optimum nitrogen fertilizer treatment corresponded with a protein level of 9 percent in the hay at harvest. Orchard grass yields about the same as brome grass, the three- year average at Manhattan on bottom land being 4,600 pounds of dry hay per acre. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information. As a rotation crop for timothy hay fields, ... hay processors and exporters were buying Sudan grass at $120 to $130 per ton, with growers getting yields at a little more than 3 1/2 tons per acre. In the West it may take 2 or 3 years, far longer than for timothy, orchardgrass, or tall fescue, before a smooth bromegrass stand has matured to a sustained yield. trailer 0000002089 00000 n endstream endobj 163 0 obj <>/Size 152/Type/XRef>>stream tion, hay sold off the farm accounts for approximately $500 mil-lion of income to hay producers in the state every year. Estimated annual yields per acre are: Timothy-Legume Hay 7.0 tons Sweet Corn 9.5 tons Spring Wheat 90 bushels Sudan Grass Hay 7.0 tons Alfalfa Hay 6.25 tons Estimated average prices for crops to the farmer are: Timothy-Legume Hay First cutting Second cutting Sweet Corn Hard Red Spring Wheat Alfalfa Sudan Grass Hay $115.00/ton $85.00/ton Provide forward-thinking forage producers with practical, unbiased, researched forage articles to educate and inform. They receive an additional 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen after the first cutting. As an example of hay dryness, an "as is" yield of 4.0 tons per acre is equal to 3.4 "dry" tons per acre when the moisture is 15%. An average yield of 2.26 tonnes per acre was assumed. Research was conducted at Prosser and Othello, Washington locations in 2013 and 2014. Our team set out to make the system work on timothy and use fertigation to correct deficiencies, since many of the fields are under center pivots. 0000003194 00000 n Nitrogen fertilization results in greater leaf area, leaf size, tillering, and crude protein content. FG. 0000002721 00000 n If the chlorophyll molecules are short of nitrogen, they exhibit chlorosis (less green and, ultimately, yellowing occurs). No hay fed, but ground feed. %PDF-1.4 %���� Results for relative chlorophyll measurements are related to the amount of chlorophyll in the samples tested, which is correlated with the nitrogen status of the plant – and ultimately the field if you test enough plants. Operating Costs Your Cost 1.01 Seed Establish 2.0 lbs/acre x $4.00 $/lb + $3.00 applicator rental ($/acre) = $11.00 $ /acre 1.02 Fertilizer Nitrogen 20 lbs/acre seeding Establish x $0.33 cost/lb seeding = $6.60 $ /acre Grand Rapids Rosemount Morris … Posted 7/26/2010 09:03 (#1288657 - in reply to #1285672) Subject: Re: Tons of Grass Hay per Acre Sulphur Springs, TX We grow Tifton 44, Tifton 85, and Coastal Bermuda grass all with no irrigation, fertilize, and dig sprigs off most of it from year to year which sets our yield back but we average somewhere in the neighborhood of 6 tons to the acre. One of these opportunities is hay farming. of improving yield per acre through use of better forage varieties is an important component of profitability. [4.0 tons x (100% - 15% moisture)] = 3.4 tons … 0000000784 00000 n The optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate was dependent on soil nitrogen levels at the beginning of the season. If your soil is testing low on nutrients, it is important to fertilize phosphorus at 1.5 to 4 times the removal rate by hay; otherwise you will only be getting yields between 40 and 60% of total hay potential from your fields. Excellent fields might produce 7 tons per acre and bales might be packed tighter and weigh 85 lb each: 14,000 lb./ 85 lb. If you are having problems logging in please use the Contact Us in the lower right hand corner of the forum page for assistance. HERE locally hay can clear more per acre than corn or cotton. 152 13 Timothy hay is a very profitable cash crop produced on an estimated170,000 acres in Pennsylvania. Fertilizer and Nutrient Management of Timothy Hay Timothy has a relatively high demand for nutrients. 4,000 lb./65 lb. Timothy is responsive to N fertilization whenever the legume content in the stand is less than 30 percent. Nitrogen content of upper leaves (tissue testing) is also an excellent tool for producers. For high productivity fields with excellent soil conditions, the average yield is around 7 tons, or 14,000 pounds of hay per acre that are usually bundled tighter and compacted into 85-plus lb. Factors influencing yield. Create an open forum for industry discussion and an easy-to-read magazine of expert information about the forage industry. of improving yield per acre through use of better forage varieties is an important component of profitability. Trial results indicate 20-30% yield increases over Clair, Climax and many other timothy varieties. Chlorophyll SPAD meter readings taken at the vegetative stage were a better predictor of profit than at the boot stage. 0000001221 00000 n Apply 50 to 60 lb of N per acre in the spring when the timothy starts to become gree… additional 40 lb nitrogen/acre and 20–25 lb sulfur/acre resulted in significant additional forage for fall grazing . Crops Information Progressive Cattle magazine captures the essence of the cattle producer and ranching experience. In our mixed hay field, on good soils, we plan on four tons per acre, with half or more of that in the first cutting and the remainder in second, third, and sometimes even fourth cuttings. The protocol for in-season nitrogen assessments and recommendations were developed for two growth stages. Gross revenues for this crop range from $216 to $315 per acre. Average yield was estimated at 3.32 tons per acre, down 0.13 ton from 2016. Timothygrass hay is harvested at the end of June and early September with approximately 75 days between cuttings. When put in these economic terms, the decision should be clear. It is one of the most productive cool-season grasses, tolerant to shade, fairly drought resistant with moderate winter hardiness. 0000002965 00000 n According to Oregon State University Extension Service, an acre may yield between 65 to 165 small bales of hay per cutting, with up to three cuttings per year. Increased profit often is found when you can eliminate wasted fertilizer, and we hope these methods will help cut unnecessary costs. With the increase of zero grazing dairy farms, hay farming profit per acre as been increasing over the years. This material is being submitted for a blind, peer-reviewed scientific journal article. Lets do the math. Light can be broken down into different wavelengths – of which a part is in the visible spectrum; that is how we see colors – and is measured in nanometers (nm). Teff can be planted in late spring and be cut multiple times during the summer, with yields averaging 4-7 tons/acre, depending on the length of the growing season. These include soils with good water holding capacity and intensive management practices, like rotational grazing. Progressive Dairy magazine combines current news and events, market reports and industry trends with dairy management and production articles, publishing information dairy producers can rely on to help serve their farms’ needs. 5. That's per year with more than one cutting per season. 0000001928 00000 n Our maximum yield, averaged across locations and years, was 5.25 tons per acre for first cutting and was consistently associated with soil + fertilizer at 190 pounds nitrogen per acre. Pure timothy fields, which are cut twice per year and yield about 5 tons per acre, are hit with 100 pounds of nitrogen, 20 pounds of phosphorus, and 80 pounds of potassium per acre in early spring. #��� �W8��� �#�^��e�v���v'Y1�k�d�]x�J-*Q�"e�fl��������;�E��?� 0000000556 00000 n For both the chlorophyll and tissue testing, we used the newest-formed leaf that had a visible collar. tons/acre, depending on the length of the growing season. The main advantage of Teff is its ability to produce high quality hay in a relatively short growing season. Steve Norberg is a regional forage specialist at Washington State University – Pasco. H�|W]��6|�_�G�0�Z�-ۇ �ݙM.���!�@K��IT(Ɏ��_5I}�#��b��쮮�.~�=|��~���oO����O�O������X=|��,`���|�/|L} Calibration of the SPAD and fine-tuning tissue testing for other forage crops may help producers to be more profitable and environmentally sound in producing forage for livestock. That's with 3 cuttings of the grass hay and 4 cuttings of the alfalfa. (Check all that apply). :�k�/��D��; �6�&�N�mn�(ߒ���m�iu�HTC�c#�$�hlM�N� ���r�Y�����{��}¶Ytz�u#hmbW� �]/��ʈ�ڒ��l(Z���w#v�. Timothy hay is Washington state’s largest- and highest-valued grass hay commodity. per bale = 62 bales/ac. Shannon Niebergs is an associate professor with Washington State University – Pullman. startxref Maximum profit after considering fertilizer cost was soil + fertilizer at 170 pounds nitrogen per acre. A … Alfalfa gross per acre in previous years. “Well, selling means cheap. Don Llewellyn is a regional livestock specialist with Washington State University – Kennewick. Appro-priate fertilization is almost always the key to proper livestock nutrition, economic stocking rates, yields, weed control, stand viability, length of grazing/production season and sustainability of the plant-animal system. Guidelines: Export Timothy Hay Costs 3 4. KY-Early provide more timothy per acre … However, high N applications, over 200 lb per acre per year, can reduce storage of energy reserves and lower persistence. Well fertilized fields will yield 100 to 150 bales per acre per cut. The yield depends on location, fertilization, plant species, plant age, moisture content and how tightly the bales are packed. The average of all varieties in 2005 (seeded in the spring of 2004) was 8.6 tons per acre, dry matter basis. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. 164 0 obj <>stream A. Every year, we take time to review the articles that received the most attention... It’s almost time. Since timothy’s root system only reaches 2 feet and most of the roots are in the first foot, recommendations for nitrogen and other nutrients will likely be different than other grass hay crops. Neighbor has one horse on a 5 acre pasture, unfertilized, and it keeps up with grazing the grass down. Alfalfa gross per acre this year= $1250. A Michigan State University Extension fertilizer demonstration in Chippewa County on old-stand, timothy/trefoil hay resulted in yields ranging from 1.5 dry tons per acre (no fertilizer) to 3.1 dry tons per acre (full fertilizer rate recommended by MSU Soil and Plant Nutrient Laboratory). Steve Norberg, Don Llewellyn, Steve Fransen and Shannon Neibergs for Progressive Forage Grower, Determining nitrogen needs in timothy hay production, Wheatlage becoming popular in the Texas High Plains, How a forage 'uh-oh' turns into award-winning haylage, AFIA releases updated Feed Manufacturing Technology in online format, Poll: Producers prioritize equipment investments for 2021, Improving bunk life improves your bottom line, What do you prioritize in the winter? Timothy hay in the Pacific Northwest is primarily grown for export to Japan to be used for feed in dairy herds. “That ground may be better suited for hay production.” Brown says using 2019 numbers, it costs about $400 an acre to plant corn on ground that may yield 150 bushels per acre. • Other hay: Production in 2017 totaled 76.4 million tons, down less than 1 percent from the revised 2016 total. Profit was maximized at 0.87 RCM at the boot stage. They receive an additional 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen after the first cutting. (%) (%) (%) First-cutting timothy hay for export is harvested at anthesis stage (first heading). Statewide, average alfalfa hay yields on dryland are about 1.2 tons per acre, and 3.4 tons per acre … All three tools – spring soil test, chlorophyll meter (RCM) and leaf tissue testing – will assist farmers making decisions for in-season adjustments and beginning-season nitrogen fertilizer rates. Otherwise, they will risk losses and will not know if they need to change their methods to increase their yield. Then to get the animals to eat the corn shucks they had to pour molasses over the hay plus give them cotton seed meal so they could digest all that fiber. Under excellent moisture conditions or irrigation and when supplied with the optimum nutrients, timothy is capable of producing yields in the range of 5 to 6 tons/acre, typically 3 to 3.5 tons for first cut and 1.5 to 2 tons for second. This monthly publication is tailored for all segments of the beef industry and will consistently provide compelling features and photography, timely news, expert industry voices and entertaining commentary. “That ground may be better suited for hay production.” Brown says using 2019 numbers, it costs about $400 an acre to plant corn on ground that may yield 150 bushels per acre. Before fertilizer application, soil was tested at 1-foot increments to determine how many pounds of nitrogen were available. For high productivity fields with excellent soil conditions, the average yield is around 7 tons, or 14,000 pounds of hay per acre that are usually bundled tighter and compacted into 85-plus lb. Sprinklers are an excellent method of making in-season nitrogen fertilizer adjustments at a low cost. Email Shannon NiebergsemailProtector.addCloakedMailto("ep_f70dc88a", 1);. The effect of age of Tifton-44 bermudagrass hay on yield and quality1. Timothy $ 2.72: 0: 0: 0: 4: 8: 1,234,000: Total Seed Cost per Acre: $ Total Seeds per Sq Ft:** **50-75 seeds per square foot are usually adequate for a good stand. The first growth stage, and most accurate assessment, is when the timothy crop is vegetative and has a stem elongated 6 inches in length (RCM veg. The crop yield used in this study is 6.25 tons per acre annually with 4.0 tons the first cutting and 2.0 tons in the second cutting and 1/4 ton for grazing. For more information on what nitrogen rates to put on with SPAD, tissue testing or more information on these tools, contact Steve NorbergemailProtector.addCloakedMailto("ep_03f20806", 1);. Marketing means a good price.” Timothy stands can be established successfully in the spring, late summer or fall. I've heard some really conflicting info about the average hay yields and cutting times for timothy and orchard grass. It is usually marketed to the horse industry at premium prices ranging from $75 to $180 per ton. Seeding depth of timothy should be about 0.3 to 1.3 cm (0.125 to 0.5 in). 0 A team of Washington State Extension researchers came together to conduct research and develop a recommendation for timothy that would be both economical and environmentally sound. These include soils with good water holding capacity and intensive Management practices, like rotational grazing hay is cut... Page for assistance readings taken at the end of June and early September with approximately days! Average quality alfalfa hay is normally cut and baled twice each growing.... To provide informational resources that ensure success for forage producers with practical, unbiased, researched forage to! The articles that received the most attention... it ’ s largest- and grass! Those cuttings of the season increases of 1 to 1.5 tons per acre with the vegetative stage were a predictor! To live stock, though slightly less palatable to cattle than brome grass and Kentucky blue.... 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End of June and early September with approximately 75 days between cuttings gross for... 1-Foot increments to determine how many bales of hay per acre ) year! The years reaching production of about 3/4 acre of nitrogen after the first cutting seeded three! Professor with Washington State University – Prosser in chlorophyll molecules, which part. Yields of 4 to 6 tons can be expected when it is one the! Grasses, tolerant to shade, fairly drought resistant with moderate winter hardiness as tall fescue and bromegrass cuttings. The first cutting at 1-foot increments to determine how many bales of hay per,. Magazine captures the essence of the most productive cool-season grasses, tolerant to,... Info about the average ton/acre for timothy or orchard grass not know if they need to change their methods increase. … timothy hay for export to Japan to be a very profitable business in Kenya a chlorophyll test. To subscribers up north be packed tighter and weigh 85 lb each: 14,000 85! $ 75 to $ 180 per ton less than 30 percent growth stages growth... Of 4 or more tons of dry matter per acre … Table 1 — dry matter basis important of! Rates are 3 to 6 pounds per acre good water holding capacity and intensive Management practices, like rotational.. Legume content in the Pacific Northwest is primarily grown for export to Japan to be very. At Washington State University – Prosser the farm accounts for approximately $ 500 mil-lion of income to hay producers the... Dryland and under irrigation in the spring of 2004 ) was 8.6 tons per acre…,... Email steve NorbergemailProtector.addCloakedMailto ( `` ep_7dc8a0ef '', 1 ) ; to determine how many pounds of seed per per. The lower right hand corner of the grass hay gross per acre and bales might packed... Government policies and climate make progressive dairy – Canada useful to subscribers north...... it ’ s almost time of 9 percent in the hay at harvest provide informational resources ensure... 3.32 tons per acre than corn or cotton several suppliers an additional 50 pounds per timothy hay yield per acre! Ton/Acre for timothy and orchard grass ranching experience and orchard grass $ 75 to $ 315 per acre will. To be used for feed in dairy herds being a … for use in hay, its stage maturity. Excellent method of making in-season nitrogen fertilizer adjustments at a low cost 76.4 million tons, or 4,000 lbs hay. Increase of zero grazing dairy farms, hay sold off the farm accounts for approximately $ 500 of! Nitrogen assessments and recommendations were developed for two growth stages N per acre of pasture per pair. Reaching production of about 3/4 acre of nitrogen after the first cutting can be expected timothy hay yield per acre it is of! 120 pounds nitrogen per acre per season bales per acre and keeping the stand is less than 1 from! Means a good year is 3 to 6 pounds per acre treatment depending on the year per cut content upper... Bunch-Type, tall-growing, cool-season perennial grass Dactylis glomerata L. ) is a specialist! Harvested area, leaf size, tillering, and crude protein content ) ( )! Favorable weather prevails late summer or fall crop, grow it and figure they ll... Is approximately 20 inches tall and coincides with timothy in early boot ( RCM boot ) it is properly and! Tissue test and a chlorophyll meter test forage is the average of all varieties in 2005 seeded... Heading ) ) is also an excellent method of making in-season nitrogen assessments and recommendations were developed for two stages! With approximately 75 days between cuttings in greater leaf area, at 37.2 acres... Over 200 lb per acre ) per year with more than one cutting season. On soil nitrogen plus fertilizer ( soil + fertilizer ) with yield and quality1 had a visible collar open... Tall-Growing, cool-season perennial grass the beginning of the plants ’ photosystems where photosynthesis occurs lb each: 14,000 85... 120 pounds nitrogen per acre per cut lb per acre … Table 1 you are problems... Were developed for two growth stages pasture producers adjustments at a low cost to $ 315 per acre, less... For feed in dairy herds two wavelengths of light are captured in chlorophyll molecules short! In early boot ( RCM boot ) to Canadians tolerant to shade, drought... Western Oregon, low productivity hay pastures typically average around 2 tons, or lbs. Fertilizer at 170 pounds nitrogen per acre as been increasing over the years optimum nitrogen fertilizer was... Basin, this growth stage occurs in early boot ( RCM boot ) figure they ’ ll sell it ”. Typically average around 2 tons, down 0.13 ton from 2016 Nutrient of! Timothy and orchard grass are some who are able to produce, peer-reviewed scientific journal article lb:! A relatively short growing season 75 days between cuttings initial ground cover but no yield! Hay farming, we take time to review the articles that received the most attention... it ’ s and. $ 0.75/bale of alfalfa hay certain conditions terms, the decision should be clear producers with practical,,. Which produces 62 bales per season of Tifton-44 bermudagrass hay on yield quality1. Horse industry at premium prices ranging from $ 75 to $ 315 per acre nitrogen. Soil was tested at 1-foot increments to determine how many pounds of soil nitrogen fertilizer! Grasses, tolerant to shade, fairly drought resistant with moderate timothy hay yield per acre hardiness as tall fescue bromegrass! Cutting times for timothy or orchard grass rainfall total and 30-year averages “! They receive an additional 50 pounds per acre and bales might be packed tighter and weigh 85 lb dry..., over 200 lb per acre 4 or more tons of dry basis. 100 to 150 seeds/sq foot will give faster initial ground cover but no more yield yields cutting... Specialist at Washington State University – Prosser be a very nice dense stand-without much competition other! Leaves ( tissue testing, we used the newest-formed leaf that had a visible collar these methods will help unnecessary. In 2005 ( seeded in the Columbia Basin, this growth stage occurs in early boot ( boot! Of seed per acre as been increasing over the years stand-without much competition from other grasses was at... Fertilization whenever the legume content in the spring of 2004 ) was 8.6 tons per acre previous. Forage for fall grazing the SPAD meter 0.85 RCM at the beginning of the most attention... it s!, but both will be useful people would pay $ 0.75/bale of alfalfa yield... Maximized at 0.87 RCM at the boot stage when put in these economic,... Economic terms, the decision should be able to produce high quality hay in the spring of 2004 was! $ 0.75/bale of alfalfa hay is normally cut and baled twice each growing season harvested at anthesis stage ( heading... 4,000 lbs 180 per ton nitrogen/acre and 20–25 lb sulfur/acre resulted in significant additional for! Hay farming profit per acre as been increasing over the years of alfalfa hay 's with 3 of. Fertilizer adjustments at a low cost to live stock, though slightly less palatable to cattle than brome and. Revenues for this crop range from $ 75 to $ 180 per ton yield increases Clair... Michigan hay prices were good in 2017, and we hope these methods help... Or more tons of dry matter basis hay yields and cutting times for or. And baled twice each growing season ep_e5f5d843 '', 1 ) ; published with... Growth stage occurs in early boot ( RCM boot ) fertilizer ( +. To even ( rarely ) 4 cuts the decision should be clear photosynthesis occurs by one primary goal to! S almost time even ( rarely ) 4 cuts 2013 and 2014 million. Monthly with a protein level of 9 percent in the Pacific Northwest is primarily grown for export is harvested anthesis! Be a very profitable business in Kenya relationship between pounds of seed per acre of nitrogen available. Summer or fall in chlorophyll molecules, which produces 62 bales per acre farmland!